The Jewish Monarchy:The Torah says the People of Israel are to be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation! Shmoth (Exodus) 19.6 “and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.” In Devarim (Deuteronomy) 17.15 the Torah says that when the Jews enter the land of Israel, they shall appoint a king over themselves. Based on this, Maimonides writes that when the Jews entered the land of Israel, they were commanded to do three things: appoint a king, destroy the Amalekites and build a Temple. Maimonides writes further that in the Messianic era a Jewish king will arise and restore Jewish sovereignty, build the Temple in Jerusalem and ingather the exiles. In I Samuel 8.8, however, it says that the Jews were condemned for requesting a king. This seems to be inconsistent.
There is a distinction between the appointment of a king as a substitute for the Al-mighty, as in Samuel’s time, (with Shaul) and the appointment of a king as a channel to become closer to G-D (as in the case of King David, his “Last Ordinance” (Devray HaYamim – 1 Chronicles 23.27) and Tehillim (Psalms) 51). Deuteronomy 17:14,15; 30.1-10, Mishnah Torah, Laws of Kings, Ch. 1. Specifically, Devarim says, “…whom the L-RD thy G-D shall choose.” HaShem chose David as King forever; while the People of Israel chose Shaul! Repentance is the Key to the Kingdom! Hoshea 3.5: “afterward shall the children of Israel return, and seek the L-RD their G-D, and David their king; and shall come trembling unto the L-RD and to His goodness in the end of days.” (Here, seek or inquire after, implies during the era of the resurrection of the dead.)
The people asked for a king “for themselves” [“to be like all other nations”] rather than a king for HaShem’s sake “as a channel to become closer to G-D through Teshuvah (Return or Repentance) and Tehillim (Exaltation of HaShem)!” King David appointed by his Last Ordinance the Levites “to stand every morning to thank and praise the L-RD, and likewise at even;” (Devray HaYamim – 1 Chronicles 23.27).
“Is it not wheat harvest today?” 1 Samuel 12.17 (Thunder and rain prevented the people from harvesting the wheat for the ritual of Bikkurim (First-fruits – Devarim [Deuteronomy] 26.1-11) and of honoring the Kohanim and Levites….)
I presume that the Torah commands the use of the Urim and Thummim to decide when to go out to war. B’midbar 27.21, Shmoth 28.30, 1 Samuel 28.6, Ezra 2.63
Presumably, the King is to Consult the High Priest and the L-RD would give an answer by the Urim or Thummim excluding the King from making such a decision of his own volition – hence Samuel objects to the type of king they asked for, one like the nations around them; rather than one in subjection to the High Priest and the Will of HaShem through the Urim and Thummim. They rejected HaShem’s Kingship and asked for a king to lead them out and in from war like the nations around them who do not know HaShem ! 1 Samuel 8.5, 20 (“that we also may be like all the nations.”)
HaShem does not want Israel to “be like all the nations” but to be distinct, set apart, a holy kingdom. Shmoth (Exodus) 19.6 (“and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation.”) “He declareth His word unto Jacob, His statutes and His ordinances unto Israel. He hath not dealt so with any nation; and as for His ordinances, they have not known them. HalleluYah.” and see: Devarim (Deuteronomy) 4.8 – “And what great nation is there, that hath statutes and ordinances so righteous as all this law, which I set before you this day?” Similarly, in Genesis 35:11 God says to Jacob, “I am El Shaddai: be fruitful and multiply; a nation and a company of nations shall be of thee, and kings shall come out of thy loins”. “[…] and kings shall come out of thy loins” IMPLIES a Kingdom with Kings.
Moreover, it says, “Howbeit the L-RD, the G-D of Israel, chose me out of all the house of my father to be king over Israel for ever; for He hath chosen Judah to be prince, and in the house of Judah, the house of my father, and among the sons of my father He took pleasure in me to make me king over all Israel; 1 Chronicles 28.4
Here, (1 Chronicles 28.4) for ever and all Israel implies that David is King (Prince1 as in, Sar Sarim, see Daniel 8.25) during the era of the resurrection of the dead! As our Sages said, that: ‘‘The days of your life’ [would mean only] this world, ‘all the days of your life’ [is written] to include the Days of Mashiach. (Mishnah Brachot 1, 5).
In every place that Tehillim is sung to HaShem, there HaShem and king David reign as it is written, “Yet Thou art holy, O Thou that art enthroned upon the praises of Israel.” Tehillim 22.3 Every place whereon the sole of your foot shall tread shall be yours: from the wilderness, and Lebanon, from the river, the river Euphrates, even unto the hinder sea shall be your border.” Devarim 11.24.
1“And I the L-RD will be their G-D, and My servant David prince among them; I the L-RD have spoken.” Ezekiel 34.24 Under David’s leadership during the Messianic Era, the Theocratic Monarchy instituted by Nevi Shmuel (the Prophet Samuel, see 1 Samuel 11.14-15) shall revert back to HaShem; therefore it is written “and My servant David prince among them.”