Black Hebrew Israelites
Most Black Hebrew Israelites live in Dimona, Israel, with the first ones arriving in that country in 1969. The group began in Chicago in 1967 under the leadership of Ben Ammi Ben Israel, an African American whose birth name was Ben Carter. Ben Israel appointed 30 disciples and in 1967 moved the group to Liberia before embarking for their final destination in Israel.
The Black Hebrew Israelites’s claims of Jewish heritage provoked substantial debate in Israel. Israeli law offers citizenship for all Jews throughout the world, but the Black Hebrew Israelites could produce no evidence to substantiate their Jewish heritage. After much investigation, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel thus decided that the Black Hebrew Israelites were not really Jewish and were not entitled to citizenship.
Throughout the 1970s and 1980s, the Israeli government did not take steps to deport the Black Hebrew Israelites, but neither did it offer them citizenship, which led to heated discussions in the country. The Black Hebrew Israelites could obtain full citizenship by formally converting to Judaism, but they refused. Meanwhile, the Black Hebrew Israelites population of Dimona grew, aided by high birthrates among the group and by additional members entering Israel. Some Black Hebrew Israelites, frustrated by their lack of citizenship, denounced Israel and adopted anti-Semitic rhetoric, arguing that white Jews were frauds and that Black Hebrew Israelites were the only true Jewish descendents.
Critics in Israel labeled the Black Hebrew Israelites a cult, a charge the group adamantly denied, and argued for their expulsion. However, proposals for their deportation met with hunger strikes in Dimona and objections from supporters in the United States. The U.S. Congress and African American leaders in the United States argued in favour of the Black Hebrew Israelites’ continued residence in Israel and sent funds, including subsidies provided by Congress, to establish a school for the Black Hebrew Israelites’ children.
In 1990 the Black Hebrew Israelites and the Israeli Ministry of the Interior reached an agreement. The Black Hebrew Israelites would be granted tourist status for one year, until they were accorded temporary residency status. Temporary residency status would be reviewed in five years, in 1995, and reviewed periodically thereafter. Status as temporary residents made the Black Hebrew Israelites eligible for financial support from the Israeli government. The Israeli government later also agreed to build a permanent organic farming village for the group in the Negev region of Israel. The Black Hebrew Israelites continued to live and work in Israel, earning money through farming, their well-known choir, sewing, and a vegan food factory and restaurants.