Yahoo/Sent: A Path Towards Peace in the Middle East (Solar Hydrogen Production)

A Path Towards Peace in the Middle East (Solar Hydrogen Production)



John Hummasti <>


Jan 12 at 6:13 AM

Israeli team develops decoupled PEC water-splitting system for centralized production of H2


Jan 14 at 3:24 PM

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Production a “Path Towards Middle East Peace”

E4Tech: ~1.1 GW of fuel cell capacity shipped in 2019, up 40% from 2018; led by fuel cell vehicles


Jan 14 at 4:01 PM


Please see forwarded messages and

<Regional Electric Automobile Manufacturing Trade Agreement>


Jan 14 at 4:27 PM

A Path Towards Peace in the Middle East (Solar Hydrogen Production)


Jan 14 at 6:53 PM

A Path Towards Peace in the Middle East (Solar Hydrogen Production)


Jan 14 at 7:27 PM

Solar Hydrogen Fuel Cell Production a “Path Towards Middle East Peace”


Please see forwarded messages and

<Regional Electric Automobile Manufacturing Trade Agreement>


Israeli team develops decoupled PEC water-splitting system for centralized production of H2

Green Car Congress

Researchers in Israel have designed a separate-cell photoelectrochemical (PEC) water-splitting system with decoupled hydrogen and oxygen cells for centralized hydrogen production. A paper describing their system is publishedin the journal Joule.

Photovoltaic-powered water splitting (PV-electrolysis) systems that couple commercially-available photovoltaic and water electrolysis technologies have already been demonstrated in several pilot plants and hydrogen refueling stations. The highest reported solar to hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency for such a system composed of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) electrolyzers powered by an InGaP/GaAs/GaInNAsSb triple-junction solar cell was 30%, tested over 48 h. Despite the high efficiency, the device’s complexity and cost makes its upscale potential impractical. PV-electrolysis systems comprising conventional Si PV modules and alkaline electrolyzers typically achieve STH efficiency of less than 10%.

Inspired by natural photosynthesis, photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting that combines light harvesting and electrochemical conversion of electrical power to chemical energy stored in hydrogen bonds, wherein both functions are carried out concurrently at the solid/liquid interface between a semiconductor photoelectrode and water, aims at providing a competitive solution for solar energy conversion and storage.

… The present work complements our earlier study, in which the conceptual idea of cell separation was proposed and demonstrated in a purely electrolytic setup, demonstrating a benchtop-scale separate-cell tandem PEC-PV device for decoupled photoelectrochemical water splitting in separate oxygen and hydrogen cells. It addresses the challenges of designing, building, and optimizing the device for assessing large-scale hydrogen generation.

The oxygen cell contains two 100 cm2 back-to-back hematite photoanodes, placed in tandem with Si PV mini-modules that provide the necessary bias for driving unassisted solar water splitting. The hydrogen cell contains the cathode, and it is physically separated from the oxygen cell. Battery-grade nickel hydroxide electrodes are placed in both cells to mediate the ion (OH) exchange between the cathode and anode. Successful operation of this prototype system was also demonstrated in outdoor conditions with natural sunlight.

—Landman et al.

In short, the decoupled system addresses one of the greatest challenges in large-scale PEC water splitting: the collection of hydrogen gas from millions of PEC cells distributed in the solar field.


Conceptual illustration of a solar hydrogen refueling station with distributed PEC solar cells producing oxygen and a centralized hydrogen generator. Landman et al.

The ion exchange between the cathode and anode in the new system is mediated by nickel (oxy)hydroxide auxiliary electrodes, thereby enabling physical separation of the two cells.


Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Cell Architectures. (A) Conventional single-cell configuration of a PEC cell comprising a photoanode-PV tandem stack and cathode, separated by a membrane or diaphragm. (B) Separate-cell configuration for decoupled PEC water splitting with an oxygen-producing tandem PEC-PV cell and a hydrogen producing electrolytic cell connected to each other electrically. Landman et al.

The oxygen cell comprises a PEC-PV tandem stack of hematite photoanodes connected in series to a silicon photovoltaic (PV) mini-module, whereas the hydrogen cell is an electrolytic cell with a platinized titanium mesh cathode.

The system uses 100 cm2 hematite (a-Fe2O3) photoanodes and nickel hydroxide (Ni(OH)2)/oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) electrodes as redox mediators.

The operating conditions of the system components and their configuration were optimized for daily cycles, and ten 8.3 h cycles were carried out under solar simulated illumination without additional bias at an average short-circuit current of 55.2 mA.

The results, said the researchers, demonstrate the successful operation of a decoupled PEC water splitting system with separate hydrogen and oxygen cells.


  • Landman et al. (2019) “Decoupled Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting System for Centralized Hydrogen Production,” Joule doi: 10.1016/j.joule.2019.12.006

To be Honest….

Angel Luna – yes, let’s be honest: you are jealous that we have the Torah and you don’t; that we have a historically accurate NATIONAL calendar revealed to our entire nation. We have Pesach (Passover) in which no other nation can say “Why is this Night – Pesach (Passover) – different from all other nights?” Our tradition (Shmoth – Exodus 20.1-2) teaches “Anochi HaShem Elohecha asheer hotzethicha me’eretz mitzraim mibeyth avadim. Lo yiheye lecha elohiym acheryim al panay.” and “Shma Yisrael HaShem Elohaynu HaShem Echad!” (Hear O’Israel HaShem OUR G-D, HaShem is One). It also teaches, “For what great nation is there, that hath G-D so nigh unto them, as the L-RD our G-D is whensoever we call upon Him?” and “But you hath the L-RD taken and brought forth out of the iron furnace, out of Egypt, to be unto Him a people of inheritance, as ye are this day.” So, yes, let’s be honest we have an inheritance called the Torah and you don’t!

A Path Towards Peace: Hydrogen Technology

A tid-bit of modern history: The first terrorist attack against the State of Israel by the PLO was on 1 January 1965 targeting the Israeli National Water Carrier!

Let water be a path towards peace in the Middle East! (B’rashith [Genesis] 26.20) “The Water is Ours…!”

Technion Scientists Develop Prototype for Efficient and Safe Production of Hydrogen Using Solar Energy

Hashem said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, that it may separate water from water.” Genesis 1:6 (The Israel Bible™)

Obtaining energy from water – the most common substance on earth – is like spinning hay into gold. Water covers 75% of the Earth’s surface and even makes up 55% of our bodies. Hydrogen is by far the most abundant element in the universe, with oxygen the third most common; together they comprise water.
But actually producing hydrogen from water is no easy task. Hydrogen is a highly sought-after material in many areas of our lives. Most of the hydrogen generated today is used to make ammonia for the production of fertilizers that are essential for modern agriculture. In addition, hydrogen is one of the leading alternative fuel sources, especially in the context of fueling vehicles.

When used for transportation, hydrogen has several advantages over mineral-based fuels – it can be generated from water using green energy such as solar energy, reducing dependence on mineral fuels and dependence on countries rich in oil reserves;

Today, most of the world’s hydrogen is produced from natural gas, but with this process comes the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2), whose environmental damage is well known. An alternative production method is electrolysis – decomposition of water (H2O) for hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2). Although the electrolysis process was discovered more than two centuries ago, not many electrolysis technologies have been developed. In recent years, with the vital transition to alternative energies, it has become clear that the electrolysis process needs to be refined to fit these energy sources.

Hydrogen production from water allows the storage of renewable energy such as solar and wind, which are not available all hours of the day;
unlike diesel and gasoline engines that emit large amounts of air pollution, the only byproduct of hydrogen engines is water.
Against this backdrop, the photoelectrochemical process that breaks down the water directly using the sunlight radiation developed. Although here too, there are various technological challenges. For example, the production of hydrogen using the conventional method of electrolysis – the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen in the same production cell – involves risk because the encounter between hydrogen and oxygen leads to an explosion. Moreover, in large-scale solar fields, it is very difficult to produce hydrogen in this configuration.
Now, researchers at the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa have developed a prototype system for the efficient and safe production of hydrogen using only solar energy. Published in the journal Joule published by the Cell group under the title “Decoupled Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting System for Centralized Hydrogen Production,” the study was led by doctoral student Avigail Landman of the Grand Technion Energy Program, together with master’s student Rawan Halabi from the Technion’s Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering.

The study was conducted under the joint guidance of Prof. Gideon Grader of the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Prof. Avner Rothschild of the Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, in collaboration with Prof. Adélio Mendes and Dr. Paula Dias of the University of Porto in Portugal.

“Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting offers an elegant approach for solar energy conversion into hydrogen fuel,” the team wrote. “Large-scale hydrogen production requires stable and efficient photoelectrodes and scalable PEC cells that are fitted for safe and cost-effective operation. One of the greatest challenges is the collection of hydrogen gas from millions of PEC cells distributed in the solar field.”

The innovative system contains a tandem cell solar device, which enables more efficient utilization of the light spectrum. Some of the sun’s radiation is absorbed in the upper layer, which is made of semi-transparent iron oxide. The radiation that is not absorbed in this layer passes through it and is subsequently absorbed by a photovoltaic cell. Together, the two layers of the system provide the energy needed to decompose the water.

The researchers hope that academics and industry will continue and advance the system into a commercial product.

The development is a continuation of the theoretical breakthrough by the Technion research team, presented in a March 2017 article in the prestigious journal Nature Materials. In that article, the Israeli researchers introduced a paradigmatic shift in hydrogen production. Instead of one production cell in which the water is broken down into hydrogen and oxygen, the researchers developed a system where hydrogen and oxygen are formed in two completely different cells.

Their work is important, in part, because mixing oxygen and hydrogen creates an explosive and dangerous interaction. The researchers presented the proof of feasibility in a lab system operated with a conventional power source.

In the just-published study, the researchers presented the realization of the theory in applied development – a photoelectrochemical prototype system that produces hydrogen and oxygen in two separate cells using only sunlight. As part of the experiment, approximately 80 working hours (10 days of about eight hours) were conducted, showing the efficiency of the system in natural sunlight. The experiment was conducted at the Technion’s Faculty of Chemical Engineering at the Technion.

Muhammad a Prophet???

Muhammad got four historical facts wrong and therefore could not be a prophet:

1) He claims Miriam, the sister of Moshe was the mother of Yeshki (Jesus), Quran – Suras 19:27-28, 3:35-36, 66:12;

2) he claims Haman of Megillat Esther was in the “court” of Pharaoh; confusing the Building of the Tower of Babel with Haman and Pharaoh, Quran – Sura 40:36-37;

3) and he claims that Pharaoh used the Roman method of crucifixion as a form of the death penalty, Qur’an – Suras 7:124, 12:41, 20:71, 26:49; 38.12, 89:6-12;

4) and conflicting Islamic sources claim either Isaac or Ishmael was offered on the Altar by Avraham.

No, Islamophobia is not the same as antisemitism

Arutz Sheva – Israel National News

Uzay Bulut, 09/01/20 07:58 | updated: 10:59

Murderous violence against Jewish people in the West – by Islamists and others – is getting alarmingly commonplace. Meanwhile, many Islamists and their apologists have been increasingly promoting the false narrative that “Islamophobia” is no different from antisemitism.

For instance, Turkey’s President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on March 22 called for a global fight against “rising Islamophobia” like the one against “antisemitism after the Holocaust”. He said in his address at a meeting of ministers from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC): “Just as humanity fought against antisemitism after the Holocaust disaster, it should fight against rising Islamophobia in the same determined fashion.”

Erdogan has long been making misleading analogies between “Islamophobia” and antisemitism as well as fascism and Zionism, a movement that defends the Jewish people’s right to self-determination and espouses support for a Jewish state in the historic Land of Israel.

“Islamophobia must be recognized as a crime against humanity in the same fashion that Zionism, antisemitism and fascism should be,” Erdogan said at the “Fifth Alliance of Civilizations Forum” in Vienna in 2013.

What Erdogan and other Islamists are trying to do is put the victims of violence – the Jewish people – in the same category as the perpetrators of violence or murderous hate- speech – the Islamist anti-Semites.

“Every single fatal jihadi terrorist attack on Jews in the West between 2012 and 2019 took place in Europe, suggesting the continent is now at the focal point of the jihadi terror threat against Jews in the West,” Mitchell D. Silber, the former Director of Intelligence Analysis at the New York City Police Department and currently an adjunct professor at Columbia University’s graduate School for Public and International Affairs, wrote in June, 2019.

He continued: “Four deadly terrorist attacks occurred in Europe between 2012 and 2019, which were carried out by individuals motivated to attack explicitly Jewish targets by violent Islamist ideology.”

However, we are constantly “warned” by Islamists and their allies not to engage in “Islamophobia” even when Islamists are targeting and murdering innocent people for believing or thinking differently.

Unlike antisemitism — which is defined by the 31 member states of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) as “a certain perception of Jews, which may be expressed as hatred…toward Jewish community institutions and religious facilities” — Islamophobia is a term that, according to the French philosopher Pascal Bruckner, was invented in the late 1970s by Iranian fundamentalists to “declare Islam inviolate.”

The term was re-introduced in a February 1997 consultation paper, titled “Islamophobia its features and dangers,” produced by the U.K.-based think tank, the Runnymede Trust – which in 1996 had established the Commission on British Muslims and Islamophobia. In November 1997, the Runnymede Trust published a follow-up a report called “Islamophobia: a challenge for us all.”

As Bruckner pointed out in a scathing essay that was first published in the French daily, Libération, in 2010,

“The term ‘Islamophobia’ serves a number of functions: it denies the reality of an Islamic offensive in Europe all the better to justify it; it attacks secularism by equating it with fundamentalism. Above all, however, it wants to silence all those Muslims who question the Koran, who demand equality of the sexes, who claim the right to renounce religion, and who want to practice their faith freely and without submitting to the dictates of the bearded and doctrinaire. It follows that young girls are stigmatized for not wearing the veil, as are French, German or English citizens of Maghribi, Turkish, African or Algerian origin who demand the right to religious indifference, the right not to believe in God, the right not to fast during Ramadan. Fingers are pointed at these renegades, they are delivered up to the wrath of their religions communities in order to quash all hope of change among the followers of the Prophet.”

In other words, what antisemitism and “Islamophobia” have in common is nothing. ‘Islamophobia’ is actually a deliberate Islamist goal.

“Forget about ‘Islamophobia’ as a social ill akin to racism,” writes Dr. Andrew Bostom, the author of The Legacy Of Jihad: Islamic Holy War And The Fate Of Non-Muslims.

“The creation of fear of Islam is a sacred obligation of faithful Muslims. Fjordman reminds us how the great contemporary Dutch scholar of Islam Hans Jansen, has observed that the Koran, for example 8:60, the verse alluded to in the Muslim Brotherhood emblem,

‘…actually commands Muslims to instill fear of Islam ‘Islamophobia’ into the hearts of non-Muslims, using any means necessary to force them to submit to Islam’s might.’”

Bostom explains that this motif — instilling terror in non-Muslims — is repeated in Koranic verses such as 3:151 and 8:12, the statements by Islam’s founder, Mohammed, (“hadith”) and his biography (“sira”).

“Koran 8:60 states,

“‘Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power, including steeds of war, to strike terror into (the hearts of) the enemies, of God and your enemies, and others besides, whom ye may not know, but whom God doth know.’

“3:151 ‘We shall cast terror into the hearts of those who disbelieve because they ascribe unto Allah partners, for which no warrant hath been revealed. Their habitation is the Fire, and hapless the abode of the wrong-doers.’

“8:12 ‘(Remember) when your Lord inspired the angels, ‘Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.’

“Muhammad reiterates this directive in the most important canonical hadith collection (Sahih Bukhari Volume 4, Book 52, Number 220), stating, ‘I have been made victorious with terror’.”

Bostom concludes: “Today, this true doctrinal and historical meaning of Islamophobia has undergone an Orwellian transformation. Our media and political elites, cowering in submission to the cultural jihadist dictates of the mainstream Muslim Brotherhood front groups which dominate institutional American Islam, now claim ‘Islamophobia’ is an unwarranted, even discriminatory fear of Muslims and their creed.”

Then why are Islamists making such a fuss about “Islamophobia” when terrifying non-Muslims is actually an Islamist duty?

For the term “Islamophobia” that is promoted particularly in the West appears to aim for censorship on the much-needed criticism of the Islamic ideology that has resulted in the annihilation or repression of millions of people including Muslims.

antisemitism or Jew-hatred, however, has historically resulted in severe rights violations, pogroms, and even genocide against Jewish people. Moreover, many Islamists who keep pushing the false narrative that “Islamophobia is the new antisemitism” are themselves anti-Semites and are motivated by the many violent anti-Semitic teachings in the Islamic theology.

Erdogan, for instance, invoked a hadith to sanction killing Jews during a “World Human Rights Day” event on December 11, 2017. “[T]hose who think they own Jerusalem should know that tomorrow they won’t be able to hide behind trees,” Erdogan proclaimed.

The full hadith that Erdogan referred to says, “The last hour would not come unless the Muslims will fight against the Jews and the Muslims would kill them until the Jews would hide themselves behind a stone or a tree and a stone or a tree would say: Muslim, or the servant of Allah, there is a Jew behind me; come and kill him; but the tree Gharqad would not say, for it is the tree of the Jews.”

Herein lies the tragedy: Banning the legitimate criticisms of the Islamic theology to stop “Islamophobia” will only empower jihadists and further harm the victims of that ideology.
In his review of Dr. Bostom’s “The Legacy of Islamic Antisemitism From Sacred Texts to Solemn History”, scholar Raymond Ibrahim writes,

“Far from being a by-product of Western antisemitism or the creation of Israel, animosity toward the Jews has a firm doctrinal base tracing back to Islam’s most authoritative texts.

“Koranic verse after verse, hadith after hadith, castigate, condemn and curse the Jews; they are called ‘corrupters,’ ‘exploiters,’ ‘distorters,’ ‘prophet-killers,’ and, most infamously, ‘pigs and monkeys.’ Such slanderous words are contained in the Koran (the eternal words of Allah) and the Hadith (the words of Islam’s prophet). Thus, Muslim hostility for Jews clearly has little to do with circumstance or politics.”

Furthermore, the anti-Semitic teachings in Islam seem to have played a large role in the ethnic cleansing of Jews in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Gulf region. Jews in those regions suffered centuries-long, systematic pressures and oppression under Muslim regimes.

Following the Muslim conquest of the region in the 7th and 8th centuries, under Islamic rule, Jews and Christians became “dhimmis”, second-class subjects forced to buy their lives by paying the heavy “jizya” tax to Muslim rulers. Through the 20th century, the persecution of Jews in Muslim countries continued and more than 850,000 Jews were eventually forced out of Arab countries and Iran, where they had lived for over 2,500 years – fully 1,000 years before the advent of Islam.

Although the history of Jewish persecution in Europe and Russia is well-documented, the Jewish persecution in the Muslim world has largely been ignored by academics. Perhaps, it is partly the fear of being called an “Islamophobe” that has prevented many academics from investigating and writing about the Jewish persecution in Muslim societies.

And Islamists are now importing their murderous Jew-hatred to Europe and northern America. A few examples:

  • In Belgium, a high school teacher in Brussels shared a Facebook video of an imam calling for a jihad, or holy war, against the Jews and those who “conspire” with them. Talal Magri, who teaches about Islam as part of the religions major at the Royal Agri Saint-Georges Athenaeum, posted the video in November, 2019 of an unidentified man preaching in Arabic, the La Dernière Heure website reported.  “Those who cooperate, work, conspire with the Jews, Allah, take them without delay. Shake their bases and topple their buildings, Allah. Support the jihad fighters, whom some of us find excuses not to join,” the preacher is seen saying.
  • In Denmark, imam Mundhir Abdallah of Copenhagen’s Al-Faruq mosque, referred to the hadith calling for Muslims to rise up against Jews. “Judgement Day will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews and kill them,” Abdallah said in a Facebook and YouTube video post in March, 2018.


  • In Spain, imam Saleheoldine al-Moussaoui of the municipality of Azuqueca De Henares near Madrid said in a Friday sermon in 2017: “Oh Allah, destroy the plundering Jews… count them one by one, and do not spare a single one of them.”
  • In France, Toulouse imam, Mohamed Tatai, in a sermon delivered in 2017, recited the same Hadith, stating that on Judgment Day, the Muslims will kill the Jews. He told his listeners that “prophet Mohammed told us about the final and decisive battle: ‘Judgement Day will not come until the Muslims fight the Jews. The Jews will hide behind the stones and the trees, and the stones and the trees will say: Oh Muslim, oh servant of Allah, there is a Jew hiding behind me, come and kill him – except for the Gharqad tree, which is one of the trees of the Jews.’” The December 15, 2017 sermon was posted on the YouTube channel of the Grande Mosquée de Toulouse on January 30.


  • In the US, Pittsburgh Imam Naeem Abdullah – in lectures uploaded to his YouTube channel between October 2016 and December 2018 – said Jews “make a mockery of their religion,” and “have all the money.” He added: “If you look deeper behind the scenes, Jews [sic] running everything,” and said some Jews “were turned into monkeys and pigs, literally.”
  • In Canada, in 2014, sheikh Wael AlGhitawi, an imam at a Montreal mosque, asked Allah during a sermon to “destroy the accursed Jews,” and “kill them one by one.” In another sermon in 2017, the imam said that Jews were “people who slayed the prophets, shed their blood and cursed the Lord.”

Apparently, 75 years after the Holocaust, the calls to “kill the Jews” are being made again across Western countries – this time mostly by imams and other Muslims. However, in November of last year, Dr. Yousef Al-Othaimeen, the secretary-general of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), “demanded the introduction of an international law to criminalize all acts of Islamophobia,” reported the website Arab News.

Herein lies the tragedy: Banning the legitimate criticisms of the Islamic theology to stop “Islamophobia” will only empower jihadists and further harm the victims of that ideology. Even if “Islamophobia” is legally criminalized internationally one day, Islamic violence against Muslims and non-Muslims will continue and probably will get even worse as there will be no one left to criticize the ideas motivating jihadist terror, hatred and abuse.

A good place to begin the battle is to stop spreading the lie that “Islamophobia” is the same as antisemitism.

Prof. Dershowitz: ‘Targeting Soleimani was constitutional, but impeachment is not’

Prof. Dershowitz says the basis for Trump’s impeachment doesn’t meet the criteria the founders set in place for removing officials.

NPR, 09/01/20 05:20


Alan Dershowitz

Alan Dershowitz

Miriam Alster/FLASH90

Attorney and professor Alan Dershowitz confirmed he is being considered as an addition to President Trump’s impeachment legal team, although he cannot comment whether or not he has agreed to join.

But Dershowitz can say for sure that he believes Trump has not committed an impeachable offense. In a historic vote, the House of Representatives has approved two articles of impeachment against Trump — abuse of power and obstruction of Congress.

“I think that both of the articles of impeachment violate the Constitution,” he says.

Dershowitz says the basis for Trump’s impeachment does not meet the criteria the founders set in place for removing officials from office.

“I’m not opposed to impeachment, but I strongly oppose impeachment on grounds like obstruction of Congress or abuse of power,” he says. “Those are not in the Constitution, and the framers would never have accepted that in the Constitution.”

Just days before the airstrike that killed Iranian Maj. Gen. Qassem Soleimani, Trump was spotted in a buffet line at his Florida resort, Mar-a-Lago, chatting with Dershowitz.

He says the two “exchanged holiday greetings and our families met.”

Trump did not bring up his future plans to assassinate Soleimani, he says, adding he believes the president’s actions against the top Iranian commander were legal.

“In this case, it was clearly legal under both international law and American constitutional law,” he says. “And the question of whether it’s good policy, only time will tell.”